James Hammond Trumbull (December 20, 1821 - August 5, 1897) was an American scholar and philologist.
Trumbull was born on December 20, 1821 in Stonington, Connecticut, as the son of Gurdon Trumbull, Sr. and Sarah Ann Swan. He studied at Tracy's Academy in Norwich, Connecticut, and at Yale University from 1838, but ill-health prevented his graduation. He was enrolled in 1850 and received an honorary LLD in 1871. He settled in Hartford, Connecticut, and was assistant-secretary of state of Connecticut in 1847 to 1852; Connecticut state librarian in 1854; assistant-secretary again in 1858-61, and Republican Secretary of the State in 1861-1866. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1855. He was a prominent member of the Connecticut Historical Society, of which he was president from 1863 to 1889. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1872.
On August 5, 1897, Trumbull died at his home in Hartford, Connecticut, at 731 Asylum Avenue.
Trumbull married Sarah Robinson in 1855.
- Annie Eliot Trumbull - unmarried.